Petroleum products are highly flammable liquids that pose a threat in the form of an explosion or ignition. No less dangerous are the vapors of these liquids, which can cause harm to the health and life of any living creature. When transporting petroleum products, another type of danger arises, namely, causing damage to the external environment in the event of a spill of petroleum products and the consequences are comparable to a local environmental disaster. Therefore, oil and its derivatives, according to ADR, belong to the goods of hazard class 3 and, accordingly, the transportation of petroleum products by road is the delivery of dangerous goods, which occurs according to the rules of transportation of dangerous goods.
Delivery of petroleum products to the final consignee can be carried out both by tare and bulk method. Containers for refined petroleum products can serve as containers, barrels, or canisters, which have a volume of up to 5 cubic meters. For the transportation of such containers, boarded or tented vehicles are used. Road transportation of petroleum products in bulk, more simply in bulk, involves mainly tanks for the transportation of petroleum products. Along with tanks, petroleum products are transported by tank containers.
Transportation of petroleum products by road, depending on the chemical and physical properties of these substances, involves two types of transportation.
LIGHT PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Light petroleum products have a fairly low density, and, consequently, a low viscosity. They are transparent liquids with minimal inclusion of oil fractions. They do not require strict compliance with the temperature regime of transportation. Transportation of light petroleum products is carried out by lightweight tankers made of stainless steel, aluminum, steel and plastic. To reduce the cost of transportation of light petroleum products, multi-section containers are used.
The delivery of light petroleum products includes:
TRANSPORTATION OF GASOLINE
DELIVERY OF DIESEL FUEL (TRANSPORTATION OF DIESEL FUEL)
TRANSPORTATION OF KEROSENE
DARK PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Dark petroleum products contain heavy fractions of refined petroleum, which have a dark color and have a significant viscosity. Transportation of dark petroleum products takes into account the fact that the solidification temperature of these products is quite low, and during transportation must be maintained at a certain level. For the delivery of dark petroleum products, isothermal tanks are required, and sometimes with heating systems.
Transportation of dark petroleum products includes:
TRANSPORTATION OF FUEL OIL
TRANSPORTATION OF OILS
TRANSPORTATION OF BITUMEN